EDS 113 Module 2: Reinventing the (assessment) triangle

In Lorna Earl’s webinar Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind (27 April 2006), she labelled and compared the three major assessments teachers (and students) employ. She presented how they are formatted and applied, according to given and perceived importance in most institutions and society in general.

The traditional triangle that has assessment of occupying the priority hierarchy, assessment for in the middle, and at the tip is assessment as, she believes, is outdated and inconsistent with the modern global education we need to be advocating in this age. She further stressed that new educators need to begin putting more emphasis into teaching techniques in knowledge acquisition, rather than feeding straight facts.

Instead of teaching our planet is round, teachers need to be asking their students why does the horizon decrease in size with distance, what is perspective, and visual
demonstrations of the different possible shapes of the earth to arrive at a conclusion, Dr Earl argued. Students need to reflect, analyze then assert. Metacognition is vital, and the reinvention of the “teaching wheel”, or more accurately, this traditional triangle need to be changed.

She suggested, and I agree like most of us I presume, that assessment as learning should be the most encouraged form of assessment, as it is done by the self, and is voluntary. Here, she said that students no matter the age need to take charge by taking an active role in their own learning; being aware of what goes in must be mentally processed, and should come out better.

It might be safe to say that Dr Earl’s call towards reinforcing assessment as learning is to cure widespread indifference in the learning sector. We see it everyday– the college graduate who, despite 14 years of education, finds himself underequipped, scared and generally clueless; the student who only “studies” for an exam, then lets go after the test; the preschooler who is reprimanded for incorrect answers, and the uncreative employee who knows nothing but go by the book may well be our future if teachers do not start teaching the “important stuff they don’t teach you in school”. In the very classroom we are all supposed to learn skills and the ways of life, both teachers and learners need to be proactive.

Then you could call self assessment as the ultimate learning hack.



Earl, L. (2006 April 27). Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind [webinar]. In Webcast for Educators. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.org/k-

EDS 103 finale: Snippets of EDS 103 learning

To tell the truth, I am happy that I had EDS 103 for my first course in this program. I feel that I have been fully enriched and improved by it. I was always excited to find out what will come next, or what the next module will be about. I remember my first formal teaching post, I missed my job every weekend, and I wished it was already Monday so I can go back see my students….

…but no class is ever like this with any adult, let’s be real. But it is close, and I am happy to report that I feel like I have grown as a teacher because of the theories I have learned here. I find myself talking about it with my coworkers, I plan to give trainings based on new theory concepts I learned, I ask my coworkers to pitch in and tell me how the ideas are correct in their practice, and how it does not apply in their situations.

Growth was with me every step of the way, and I almost physically stretch me every week—by now I feel like six feet tall.


To be more specific, I would say that as much as I savored every new grain of thought, I continue to ponder upon behaviorism. Not surprisingly, it is the most relevant to my practice as I deal with preschool children. While I stand by my conviction to avoid extrinsic rewards, I wonder if none of the teachers know about the faults of a “token economy” I discussed in my previous post “Sticker-stingy” (https://glenbanal.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/eds-103-module-3-sticker-stingy/). Why continue to reward even if it’s become obvious that the reward has stolen the spotlight? Have some of us failed to receive Pavlov’s memo? Or, did I miss a new memo?


The Sousa article about the importance of prime time and how learning is affected by down time (Sousa, n.d)…. One that I will never forget. Not that it was memorably written, but it has a huge impact to me. Perhaps it is because it was closest to home, and in my school it is something that all of us continue to struggle with. I have not stopped talking about it with my coworkers and I was telling about it to anyone who wishes to listen. From then on, I swore no more tired and bored students, and yes to better classroom management planning.


I was especially inspired by the constructivism school of thought in education. As Piaget rebuilt our confidence on students by suggesting that a learner and his or her prior knowledge can be responsible for assembling knowledge out of information, then they can be largely responsible for their learning (Piaget, 1936). This has reintroduced active learning to me, and I am sure to attempt to steer my classes towards a more learner-centered approach, where my students will become stakeholders in our learning community. Students, no matter how young they are, can be and must be a part of their growth, as much as of our own. As I continue to use Vygotsky’s ZPD in considering learning curves and scaffolding, his concepts were indeed very helpful in the quest to better understanding of learners (Vygotsky, 1934).


There were knowledge that has been articulated in my study of this course, and there were some that were brand new acquisitions. It is not as much about the amount of modules read, or the volume of journals added in my mental education folder (See “Folderize your brain” post, October 13, 2015), but the way I have directed my learning. The epistemology of my learning, to me, is based off of how these will reflect in my teaching practice. Sure, several students have expressed how excited the course has gotten them, and how they plan to remember all of it, but like what Schunk (2000) said, what good does a piece of information has if it is not about to move away from the book to the drawing board? It is not considered learned until it has been practiced and then, to borrow from the latter, enduringly changed behavior (Schunk, 2000).


I love map reading in my free time, and EDS103 gave me my first map. Ah, so this is Lifelong learning.

Banal, G. (2015 October 1). Sticker-stingy [web log post]. Retrieved from https://glenbanal.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/eds-103-module-3-sticker-stingy/

Sousa, D. (n.d.) Primacy-recency effect. Retrieved from https://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/secondary/math/download/file/How%20the%20Brain%20Learns%20by%20David%20Sousa.pdf

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

Dahms, M. et. Al (n.d.) TheEducational Theory of Lev Vygotsky: an analysis. Retrieved from http://www.aiz.vic.edu.au/Embed/Media/00000023/Article-The-Educational-Theory-of-Lev-Vygotsky.doc

Phye. G. (2004). Learning. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. (Vol 2. p. 520). Retrieved from http://www.perl.hs.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/projects/carver/learning.pdf

EDS 111 Module 3E: UP as a learning community

Many former students and undergraduate alumni of the University of the Philippines would probably agree that in reading about lifelong learning, scholarship and learning communities, UP is an embodiment of most of the characteristics of a true community where people are not only striving to become an academic, but also a group that puts up almost an effortless vibe of learning. As I am sure there is a parallel collective in other schools, I have not seen a community of this size where everywhere feels like a virtual classroom (so pardon my limited perspective about other schools– feel free to share below).

Kruse, Louis and Bryk (1995) said that learning communities usually have the five characteristics, namely: reflective dialogue, focus of student learning, interaction exists among teachers, collaboration, shared values and norms (Kruse, Louis and Bryk, 1995). The latter proposed that these should be present in a organization to be considered a community with a lifelong goal of growth by being voluntarily engaged. From where I stand, these characteristics, especially reflective sharing, collaboration and values- sharing , are easily ever- present in UP, and is not just exclusive among the teaching staff, but in several forms as well.

Reflective dialogue is described as conversations where teachers discuss student improvement in their teaching. In the university, this is generally observable as personal traits of all members both students and teachers. In the UP culture, constant self evaluation and critical thinking are behaviors that are constantly encouraged within the self, and this opens
communication lines not just between faculty members but amazingly, students also get involved.

Collaboration is not exclusive between just teachers, but always present, as organizations get deeply creative in activities and projects. Administration activities and the student council, or the USC, equally compete with student orgs; there isn’t a monopoly of who controls and regulates.

Values and norms are shared and passed on thru a strong tradition of independence, self- analysis and critical thinking– traits considered a brand of membership in the UP community– are just some of what are considered important as a member of this community. Granted, there are some who may not fit into certain molds but it is almost safe to say that its ethos tend to prescribe to have some of the traits mentioned above, and could possibly manifest in many implicit forms.
I believe that the key to a successful learning community is that students champion lifelong learning themselves, and in this institution, most of it are done outside of teacher monitoring. As it is already a given that faculty members in most institution posses higher academic profiles, a sort of culture within the student community needs to surface, and in UP, the latter had nailed it down to a tee.

(Roberts, S. & Pruitt, E. Z. (2009). The professional learning community: An overview (Chapter 1). In Schools as professional learning communities: Collaborative activities and strategies for professional development (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, pp. 1-25.). Retrieved from http://www.corwin.com/upm-data/27683_Roberts_Chapter_1.pdf

EDS 111 Module 3D: Questions towards reflectivity

As a student teacher, I should be aware that theories should not become our main source of food when it comes to learning how to teach. Reflection is a valuable form of in-practice professional development, and perhaps sui generis.

A researcher who valued the social reform outlet of teaching,  Dewey has prescribed 3 attitudes a teacher must possess in his or her reflective practice. They are openmindedness, responsibility and wholeheartedness (Dewey, 1933).

But what are the vital questions we should ask ourselves in order to achieve a higher sense of thinking in this regard? Consider the following:


  1. Do you think about who may be affected or offended by your activities in the classroom?
  2. Do you bother to be sensitive enough to your non-believing students?
  3. Do you question gender profiling, inequality of racial representation, stereotypes, language discrimination and other socially relevant issues as possible biases in applicable contexts in your content?
  4. Do you inquire and interrogate texts on what could else be considered normative ideologies?


  1. Do you take the time to look up other resources to explain multi-raciality, religion and other idea variants when your material lacks exposure of the other sides?
  2. Do you encourage debates and peer learning that examine the topics and ideas shared, even of your own? Can you take students’ critiques and be humble enough to remain level- headed when others are critical?
  3. Do you harbor fear of making mistakes in front of your students? Or are you able to bounce back with grace and be able to own that mistake with a thorough and salient answer?


  1. Do you accept that this profession is public service?
  2. Do you acknowledge that teaching is never a self- serving practice?
  3. Is it important to you to cater to others needs first before your own? Are you clear on who and what should teachers prioritize?
  4. Are you committed to selfless service to all students, no matter who, where or in what surroundings?

Teaching is not a one size fits all practice as we have learned in the previous modules. Because of this, it will easier to see that different contexts, different scenarios, different students and different cultures will invariably prove that correct teaching cannot be prescribed. But if there is one thing that can be prescribed in the profession, it is reflective practice. It is more than professional, and it teaches us respect, and other desirable personality traits universally useful for a progressive self.


Grant, C.A and Zeichner, K. M. (1984). On becoming a reflective teacher. In Preparing for Reflective Teaching (pp. 103-114). Retrieved from http://www.wou.edu/~girodm/foundations/Grant_and_Zeichner.pdf

EDS 103 Module 3D (on Vygotsky): Cognitively- underdeveloped students a result of incompetent teachers?

Vygotsky’s ideas on constructivism are nothing short of brilliant that promotes a largely beneficial school of thought for education. One of its most salient points was about the importance of a competent mentor that facilitates learning. Vygotsky readily suggests parents as the first and original, to provide the initial social interaction for a child,  but as biological maturity proceeds in a typical society, so does the need for a child to enter formal education.

Inevitably, this means that a huge chunk of a child’s life of the next 12 years or so will be spend in the care of school administrators; to be put under the heavy influence of curriculum life as its virtual bible and the youth at the mercy of class room teachers from age 4 to 5 to their formative years, puberty and then adolescence and adult life. This shows how great of an impact, and of responsibility the education system has on a person’s life, and you may ask who becomes their closest mentors next to their parents? None other than the teachers. An unbelievably  huge privilege and a responsibility at that.

But, as teachers and future ones reading Vygotsky and his preaching on the need for good  teachers to become proper role models, I cannot help but reflect on non-performing students. They are the ones who we could consider underdeveloped— lacking in critical thinking, displays poor reasoning abilities, lacking knowledge on correct learning techniques and strategies. The list can go on but what I am pointing out here is an observation I have made… are weak students necessarily mentored by incompetent teachers- models?

The following passage is quoted from Saul McLeod’s article on the famous thinker Vygotsky’s thoughts on social influences on cognitive development:

According to Vygotsky (1978), much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor. The tutor may model behaviors and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Vygotsky refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. (2014)

Following this claim, it might well mean that the reverse could also be true? Think of the Ivy League and a local community college: does it mean that students who attend the top schools who boast of the best education in the United States (maybe even the world) are the way they are primarily because they are being mentored by elite minds of the American academe, during and pre- tertiary? And does that also follow that the converse is true, that if you find yourself poorly performing and lacking in the fundamental pillars skills, then it is partly because that you’ve been mentored by passive teachers, by teachers who didn’t really care, by teachers who lacked passion and the drive to be able to become the best model for their students, or worse, by teachers who are also equally clueless and misinformed?

I do not wish to discount the fact that the self accounts for something in cognitive development, as Piaget and the others who had developed theories on intelligence and the like, but as far as social cognition is concerned, do you think Vygotsky will blame incompetence of the tutor in his model?

I believe that this module has shown us the heavy importance of Piaget’s lessons to current and future educators in educating us about readiness (the stages of cognitive development), and Vygotsky on material and teaching appropriateness (the ZPD) and the significance of skillful models (McLeod, 2014). In the end, perhaps both the self and social factors determine our rate of cognitive development and one cannot be given more significance over the other, and neither one can be blamed more than the other.


McLeod, S. (2014) Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html#social

Dweck, C. Mindset. Free Books Online, p 39. Retrieved from http://www.freebooksol.net/Mindset/39.html

Cherry, K. Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm

EDS 103 Module 3C: Folderize your brain! (and how to teach categorization)

Do you have an imaginary number line in your head to help you do mental math? Do you have boxes that store the different phyla of the animal kingdom that helps you remember that the centipede is not in the same phylum as the segmented earth-worm, and that an octopus is a mollusk? Do you have folders in your head?

This is the first time that I have revealed that the above exists in my thoughts, because until now, I did not know that a few many cognitive psychologists have explicitly drawn much conclusion that there is such an organizational memory structure (Huitt and Lutz, 2003) in human brains that help us with memory retrieval.

Jerome Bruner (1998) was one of the first thinkers to articulate this idea explicitly in his constructivist theories that touched on memories and memory formation. Eliasmith’s (2001) definition of memory, according to Lutz and Huitt (2003), implied that there is such a mental structure that organizes our new memories in a fashion that makes sense to us.

This being said, I am now sure that I am not the only one who has a structured computer hard drive – like manner of remembering things. But as cognitive theorists would suggest, the importance of an organized and structured prior knowledge would elicit a resounding agreement. What are its benefits?

For one, categorizing knowledge we perceive thru the senses (sensory memories), that translated into working memory, and then made its way into our long term makes it easier to retrieve for future use (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968). Imagine if new memories are not given due attention and was left “lying there in the brain” as it was perceived, then our brains would be too cluttered to form new ones, and to assist in other much harder cognitive processes, or “brain jobs”, such as planning, reflection and metacognition.

Priming is based on prior knowledge and is necessary to make new memories thru the use of previously encountered date, to form associations, and so are a whole lot of learning endeavors. The use of a top- down (Miller et al, 1960) and the bottom- up information processing uses organized prior knowledge. Establishing connections to previous memory is necessary for learning to occur (Lutz and Huitt, 2003).

So now we see how valuable organizing, sorting and labeling the different “folders” in our head, how do we attempt to teach that to our students? One way could be teaching discrimination and identifying similarities. Making distinctions between the things and concepts that are around us can help students form their own ideas of what could be classified together and what cannot be grouped. Teaching thru priming can also build mental associations that eventually lead to a rich, diverse, adn then sophisticated network of ideas that encourages open- mindedness and tolerance to others (making cultural associations).

Cognitive organization helps teach expertise (Schraw and McCrudden, 2013) as memory and prior knowledge becomes more and more vivid, and then powerful. So go ahead, whip out the label- maker and start folderizing your thoughts like a crazy obsessive person (because it works).

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information processing and memory: Theory and applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf

EDS 103 Module 3B: So what, Albert Bandura?

In the previous module, we have critiqued and interrogated the text surrounding the learning involved in the behaviorist approach. While most have accepted the efficacy of conditioning and the power of association, we are yet to apply them in real life settings as learners of education.

Bandura’s social learning theory (1977) suggests that as creatures of society, our learning is also highly susceptible to our sensory observations. What we see, hear, taste… anything we perceive that we deem moral and just, we may copy. But has Bandura considered whether the learners have thought about the more profound reasons why they behave/ want to behave like they do? Do they have full understanding why they have considered to copy certain behavior they wish to do so?

He said that in his pursuit of explaining behavior, he has formulated the social cognitive theory to be able to cover the lack of weight on the influence of human cognition in behaviorism. He suggested that in his theory, people also mentally process the morality of the behavior that helps us judge whether it is a behavior/ learning we desire to have or enact (Bandura, 1989). But the purpose of the consequence of that behavior, it is really something we aspire? And how many of us use a metacognitive reflection to tell  whether this is what we want?

Bandura has arrived at the conclusion that the bobo doll experiment had the children consider the environment to assist them in making that call of modeling the observed behavior, but I wonder if the children actually know what purpose this behavior will serve them later. After learning how to use periods religiously after the writing  teacher models this desirable behavior, do students really know why it is important for them to put end marks in their sentences? What purpose has this served? After desiring a nice little body and craving money and fame, do followers of Kim Kardashian understand their purpose as to why they choose to imitate her demeanor and the way she looks? Or is it plain fanaticism?  After the deed has been done, the most imposing question is: so what?

Perhaps I have yet to read more on Bandura and the cognition he posits to happen, to understand the thought that goes into why we model from certain behaviors. Or it could be too convoluted and muddy a concept that the social learning theory does not involve itself in. Perhaps it is too broad to be explained by such one theory, and that other theories are in play?

Kendra, C. Social Learning Theory: How People Learn By Observation. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm

Mahto, A. (2006). Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from http://ananda.mahto.info/albert-banduras-social-cognitive-theory/

EDS 103 Module 3B: Role Models table

Models and Mentors in My Life

My Models and Mentors

Role Models and Mentors Their Contributions
Mother She has instilled that a strong personality is resilient to challenges in life
Step- father Has shown me incredible intelligence that I aspired to have: etiquette, manners, class, worldliness
Friend and former manager She has demonstrated to me that a Filipino female can thrive against a predominantly Caucasian –biased teaching industry abroad

The Type of Role Model I Want to Be for My Students.

1.      A view of fairness and justice, respect for others’ ways and means
2.      Being open minded and anti- bigotry
3.      An equal gender view
4.      The importance of lifelong learning
5.      The emphasis on the power of character strength and independence


How I Will Incorporate Models and Mentors in My Classroom?
In teaching ESL in Southeast Asia, I feel that it would be of great help to put a successful immigrant local child into a classroom of learning students of English as a model. This model would be completely relatable, and this puts the abstract purpose of learning another language in perspective. A model like this could be applied whenever I can; a sort of a guest speaker- resource person. An open forum could be held and students may ask about the child’s path to success in another land, and how he/she was able to conquer challenges.

Whenever this is not possible, another model that can be applied is to invite a native English speaker friend who is also a relatable and a highly amiable person. He may serve as a guest demonstration partner in showcasing a Demo Day, where the teacher and students can participate in a demonstration, interviewing/ interrogating/ dialogue-ing with the guest in front of the class.

As you can see, these model formats are not a constant fixture in the class, but only as an invited figures. In this case, then the modeling could be continued to carried out by the teacher (myself) after the models have left the class for their appearance. They may only serve as inspirations and a figure the teacher and the students can refer back to even after the appearance in class, as a case study when practical issues and questions are encountered.

Who Will Be My Education Mentor? What Would My Ideal Education Mentor Be Like?
A person I have so much respect for was a friend and a former manager I had the pleasure of working with in Vietnam teaching English to young and adult students. She was female, which is a rarity in managerial positions that is dominated by young White Westerners, which also means she was the supervisor to a whole team of native- English speakers. She is a highly respected teacher in the school, and is also valued for her consultation services.

I have considered her a mentor as I still contact the person to ask questions to, to consult difficulties I might be having professionally, and seek her interpretation of certain scenarios that confuses me, aside from being a truly good friend to me. I believe she has considerable experience as she had been teaching for 2 decades now, and I trust her to offer me sound judgment. She has a lot of best practices to share with me, and she doesn’t scrimp on straight and unbiased critique. She is also highly intelligent as she has been trained in the US and in other countries, and have trained teachers herself in the Philippines and Vietnam.

I have worked with her and seeing the response of both the parents and the students to her work, I would definitely consider her excellent and passionate at her job, something all of us current and future teachers can learn. The results of the product of her work demonstrate what kind of teacher I would want to be.

EDS 103 Module 3: Sticker- stingy

I have never been one who was known among my students to be generous with extrinsic rewards. I have fought against what B.F. Skinner (1938) had termed “token economy” in the classroom. I have never subscribed to the rewards of a tangible reward such as stickers and other gifts to motivate my students and here’s why:

  1. I refused to teach my students to equate amiable behavior/ performance to a small and a very impermanent joy such as a sticker; to me, it’s the equivalent of bribery.
  2. I want to instill in my students the rewards of learning in itself: better grades, knowledge that they can use sooner or later, a competitive edge among their peers if it suits them (my students are young children), possessing know how, general contributor to intelligence, usable abilities, among others;
  3. I want them to value more lasting trophies (knowledge) than disposable ones (tokens);
  4. I hope to shape their attitude towards good behavior does not always equate to immediate positive responses. Some things are cumulative and process- based and patience and long term hard work is sometimes necessary;
  5. I wish to help them adjust into the real world outside a token economy with realistic expectations that not every positive deed will be rewarded, and a positive deed is already a source of pride. (McLeod, 2007)

These reasons listed above are my personal feelings towards reinforcements and rewards. I respect the proponents of behaviorism as they have very solid arguments in most aspects, but perhaps I could be trying to teach and discipline from a more reformist bias.

Make no mistake on how I also subscribe and employ several tactics on conditioning (again, my students are at a very malleable age). As a matter of fact, I have come to trust the theories of behaviorism as highly effective and compatible in preschool education. But somehow, I cannot require myself to go beyond smiley stamps, verbal encouragement and a pat on the back (it’s a high-five nowadays).

Not to mention that I have to pay for the stickers myself.

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

EDS 103 Module 2: “I am intelligent” and other self- inflating statements

The human brain is a sophisticated and an astounding machine that, if you really think about, can produce abstractions: remembers events, imagines and creates things that aren’t there, all through a bunch of chemical reactions. The physical brain can be so simple, and yet, its abstract can only be limited by its own. High levels of intelligence is indeed quite powerful to have, not that it could predict success in certain domains, but depending on the school of thought one subscribes, it can possibly provide for someone to become very well- adapted in life (Sternberg, 1985).

But why are we attempting to measure intelligence? Situations where immediate familiarity is required may have some use for using intelligence measure as a yardstick– albeit caution is required. Applying for a job is a situation where it is almost necessary to display a high level of intelligence, and eventually, competence at the onset. To be able to identify appropriate method of instruction to learners with special needs is another context where intelligence test scores are used.

With all this trouble in defining what intelligence is, what comprises it and how many types are there and how it is inherently challenging to measure, shall we leave it to the person to do a self- rating? After all, who knows one the best, bias and everything, but the self?

I cannot help but reckon the phenomenon of illusory superiority. According to it, majority of people tend to rate themselves as above- average in beauty, social status, other positive traits, including intelligence (Dunning and Kruger, 1999). Although this is statistically impossible, people nonetheless think a little too highly of themselves in a whole lot of situations.

I have yet to meet a car driver who will not say they are not exceptional in it, even go beyond and undermine others, dismissing them as “weak”, “slow” and “lacking traffic logic” (diskarte), which explains the angry and impatient honking on Manila streets.  Just like skillful driving and other tacit knowledge, people could easily rate themselves as better than most, and fall into the illusions of superiority.

The construct of the common sense has been the butt of street humor, it becoming uncommon among people, but is a crucial factor in practical intelligence. It is all too easy to point fingers at another and accuse them of lacking commons sense, when in fact, people behave in ways that didn’t follow a rational process.

These situations led Dunning and Kruger to experiment in 1999, and find out that often, greater ignorance (low levels of intelligence) begets someone to overinflate one’s abilities and increases failure to recognize their own lack of skill (Lee, C., 2012).

Now, my suggestion earlier to invite our own selves to determine the levels and types of intelligence we possess is rooted in the middle of all the fuss made by the apparent difficulty to consolidate a single accurate test of intelligence. Whether it’s IQ or EQ, or perhaps MI for you, I think the idea remains plausible, because in some of the deep recesses of the human mind and behavior only the self can explore, we may have to rely on our good- old self knowledge to reveal what’s really in there. Who else to know that we have a high level of analyzing- over- analysis than us?

I admit that this endeavor could prove difficult because of the thousand loopholes we can see even from a mile away (the Dunning Kruger effect is just one), but healthy and able individuals should be equipped with a  kind of reflection to be able to self- rate in a survey to partly (?) assist in scientific study.

It will take a certain kind of skill rooted in philosophy, or high levels of metacognition, or both,  to be able to overcome the highly attractive trap—to say that “I am intelligent”, with impunity.

It was, after all, just a suggestion.